Respond to one of the following prompts in no more than six (6) pages. Use appropriate course readings plus at least two additional scholary sources to build your argument. Discuss Specific Archaelogical examples in detail to support your arguments (not including bibliography). Cite sources for all your important points, whether paraphrased or direct quotations. Indicate which question you are answering.

1) States developed independently in very different environmental settings. Environmental factors can both stimuli or constraints to the development and sustainability of ancient states.
Compare and contrast the relationship of environmental factors to the rise and fall of complex civilizations in at least two civilization areas. How do climate, geography, geology, plant and animal species, agricultural potential, resource abundance or scarcity affect the development of states in each region? 

2) Empires use a variety of strategies to integrate diverse regions and peoples into an “overarching tribute-taxation structure and an ideological apparatus” (Gailey and Patterson 1987:8).
Compare and contrast the strategies used in the expansion, consolidation and administration of at least two prehistoric empires. How did imperial strategies permit each empire to exert control, extract tribute and avoid resistance? How did the choice of strategies affect the viability and longevity of each imperial system?

3) Ideology may be defined as “the principles, philosophies, ethics and values by which human societies are governed”. Iconography is “the ways in which aspects of the world, the supernatural or human values are conveyed in art” (Flannery and Marcus 1996:351). 
Compare and contrast the ideologies of any two ancient states or empires as represented in the iconography of their corporate art and architectural style. What does the content and context of art and architecture tell us about each state society?

There are 28 articles, but choose one from the 28 as course reading source is fine. However, still need at least two scholarly sources, essay question, and scholarly sources guideline as attachment. Use course readings plus at least TWO additional scholarly sources (scholarly sources that are not from the course reading) to support your argument. Sources should be peer-reviewed articles from a scholarly journal or book. Cite all sources for data, opinion, or direct quotation, using page numbers. You may use “American Antiquity” parenthetical citation style (Wright 1986:334), or any standard style of citation. All papers must be original, individual work for this course. , with no more than six (6) pages of text, plus a list of references cited.

Answer ONE of the three questions from the Final paper guideline.

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