Analyze a concrete’s bridge defect results by SPSS, and then run different analysis on those results in order to calculate descriptive statistics as stipulated in the assignment requirement. Compare 3 data subsets with each other, and each variable for the different defects in order to ultimately find relationships and reject any null hypothesis between them.

**Objective**

1. To demonstrate an understanding of the techniques included in the Engineering Statistics module.

2. To provide evidence illustrating the application of these techniques involved in analysing for a Concrete Deterioration.

3. The Attached Concrete Defect Database represent deterioration data from historical inspection record for concrete structures, you are required to choose a minimum of 50 members with defects of 3, 7 and 9 and analyse using statistical techniques, the rates of deterioration of structural members from 1-9.

4. All coding for the defects are given in the table attached.

**Introduction**

Concrete degradation may have various causes. Concrete can be damaged by fire, aggregate expansion, sea water effects, bacterial corrosion, calcium leaching, physical damage and chemical damage. This process adversely affects concrete exposed to these damaging stimuli.

The visual signs of serious concrete deterioration are cracks, spalls and rust stains. It is important to determine the cause of deterioration and the likely consequences before deciding on the type and scale of remedial works. There is continuing debate about the main reasons for premature deterioration of concrete structures and about their relative importance. Problems are variously attributed to inadequate specification, poor design detailing and inferior workmanship. Corrosion of steel in concrete, however, represents the most common and serious form of degradation of reinforced concrete structures worldwide and the economic loss and damage caused by this process makes it one of the largest infrastructure problems facing industrialised countries.

**Statistical Analysis Requirements**

1. A detailed background about concrete structures deterioration including detailed introduction and literature review of pervious scientific investigations on the topic

of the statistical modelling of service life of concrete bridges.

2. Use the data tables provided to generate 3 data subsets for the defects of 3 (Minor defects), 7 (minor spalling), and 9 (Major deterioration) and plot

histogram for these subsets for different types of bridges. What does the histogram indicate?

3. Calculate descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, variance, range, median, quartiles, IQR) for each subset of data in above.

4. Generate the Probability Distribution Plot for each table of data.

5. Calculate the Confidence Interval estimate of population mean for each of data sub sets. Compare the CI for each consecutive pair of data subsets.

6. In order to prove independencies of each subset data, use Z-test, T-test and χ2 Chi-squares test for the variance. Comment on all subsets data tests.

7. Plot the mean of each subset data vs. the defect number and obtain the empirical relationship between these variables using Linear Regression Analysis. What does the plot “relationship” indicate?

8. Perform Hypotheses Testing for all data subsets and comments on the results.