# Correlation of self-esteem using SPSS

## Application: Correlation Study: Intelligence and Self-Esteem

In Chapter 1 you read about the differences between experimental and observational research and read that correlational studies are one type of observational research. In an experiment, the researcher manipulates a variable to determine differences between two or more levels of that variable. In an observational study, the researcher looks at patterns of relationships without manipulating variables. In correlational studies, you cannot show that one variable causes a change in another variable. However, you can demonstrate that as one variable increases, another increases. You also may find that as one variable increases, the other decreases. You may even find that there is no relationship at all. Use your understanding of correlations to work through the following scenario.

Scenario:

To prepare for this Assignment, recall that in Week 1 you imagined you were a researcher interested in determining if student intelligence is related to self-esteem. Now imagine that 10 individuals participated in your study and the raw data are given here:

 Participant Self-Esteem Score IQ 1 3.2 100 2 4.1 140 3 2.2 95 4 3.0 112 5 2.6 130 6 2.0 99 7 5.0 118 8 4.8 121 9 3.7 129 10 4.4 138

Assignment:

To complete this Assignment, submit by Day 7 your answers to the following. Based on the scenario, use SPSS to determine if self-esteem is related to intelligence in your sample by computing a correlation. Save and submit both the SPSS data and output files.

• Before computing the correlation, state either a one-tailed or two-tailed, alternative hypothesis and the corresponding null hypothesis in words (not formulas).
• Based on the hypotheses you stated, explain whether you should conduct a one-tailed or two-tailed test. Provide a rationale for your choice.
• Identify what the correlation coefficient (r) is for this data set.
• State the degrees of freedom and explain how it is calculated.
• Identify the p value.
• Explain whether you should retain or reject the null hypothesis. Provide a rationale for your decision.
• Explain how you would use statistics to describe the relationship between self-esteem and intelligence. Include an explanation of both the direction and strength of the relationship.