Criminology Discussion

The Unit 8 discussion board wraps up topics that were covered throughout the course in addressing and testing criminal justice research hypothesis and null hypotheses. I have provided 10 examples below with a scenario question, the independent variable, dependent variable and null hypothesis. I have provided 4 questions below with a requirement to submit your research and null hypothesis with the independent and dependent variables. I will allow up 16 extra credit points for completion of all of these in a correct manner. Partial credit for those submitted partially correct. There is a submission link for your responses. Place in Word form and save the file as Last name–CJ430 — Unit 1 Extra Credit

Smith–CJ430–ExtraCredit

Many different criteria can be found in the literature over what are the desirable qualities of a “good” hypothesis. If you are a theoretician, then a scientific hypothesis is what you are after, and this will resemble (although not be exactly the same) as your scientific theory. You must “test” your hypothesis before it has any implications for theory. A scientific hypothesis that has not been fully tested is usually called a “working hypothesis.” A useful hypothesis (and utility may very well be the most desirable quality) will enable prediction, or at least reasoning. It will allow you to explore, observe, ask and answer questions. Some people like to call their hypothesis an “educated guess,” but the word “conjecture” is more appropriate for something like this. In the end, the “best” hypotheses usually stick pretty close to the original interpretation of the person that first conceived of the whole idea in the first place.

REVIEW QUESTIONS: (EXAMPLE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

For each of the following, indicate the correct variable type by IV for Independent Variable or DV for Dependent Variable:
1. If crime increases as a result of the full moon, then crime is what type of variable?

IV = Phase of the Moon

DV = Crime

Null Hypothesis – There is no difference in the amount of crime based on the phase of the moon

If juries are more likely to impose the death penalty on blacks who commit crime against white people, then being black is what type of variable?

DV – Imposition of the death penalty

IV – Race of Victim

Null Hypothesis – There is no difference in the likelihood of a black defendant being convicted of a crime based on the race of the crime victim

If involvement in crime is inversely related to age, then age is what kind of variable?

IV – age

DV – Involvement in crime

Null – There is no difference in the amount of involvement in crime based on the age of the perpetrator of crime

4. If citizen attitudes toward police improve by 20% for every 5% decrease in crime, then citizen attitudes toward police are what type of variable?

IV – percentage of decrease in crime (crime rate)

DV – percentage of improvement of citizen attitudes toward police

Null – There is no difference in the improvement in citizens attitudes toward police as a factor of the crime rate

If there is a strong association between alcohol abuse and spouse abuse, then spouse abuse is what kind of variable?

If risk of victimization is a function of lifestyle and absence of guardians, then lifestyle is what type of variable?

IV – lifestyle and parental presence/absence

DV – Risk of Victimization

Null Hypothesis – There is no difference in the risk of victimization based on the function of lifestyle and absence of guardians (I don’t like this one because it addresses two different independent variables at the same time)

If microsocial strain, mediated by locus of control and lack of social support, creates conditions conducive to committing crime, then locus of control would be what type of variable?

IV – microsocial strain mediated by locus of control ….. and lack of social support

DV – commission of crime

Null hypothesis – There is no difference in the likelihood of crime committed as a factor (or result) of microsocial strain (that would be defined)

If the corporate ethics climate and white collar crime are associated, then ethics climate is what type of variable?

Make this directional and it is a somewhat If … Then type of hypothesis

If corporate ethics decreases/diminishes, the amount of white-collar crime will increase

IV – corporate ethics

DV – white collar crime

Null Hypothesis – There is no difference in the amount of white collar crime based on the degree of corporate ethics

If the number of handguns sold illegally is linked to the number of homicides committed annually, then number of homicides is what type of variable?

IV – Number of handguns sold illegally

DV – number of homicides

Null Hypothesis – There is no difference in the number of homicides based on the number of handguns sold illegally

For two groups of inmates, one which is exposed to an educational program, and the other which is not, it is shown there are significant differences in rehabilitative outcomes, then educational program is what type of variable?

IV – rehabilitation outcomes

DV – Exposure to educational programs

Null Hypothesis – There is no difference in the rehabilitation outcomes of inmates based on exposure (or not) to educational programs

Extra Credit Requirement: (ONLY ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW)

A. Construct 3 non-directional hypotheses that relate to a criminal justice topic and make sense.

Provide independent variable and dependent variable

B. Construct 3 directional hypotheses that relate to a criminal justice topic and make sense.

Provide independent variable and dependent variable

C. Construct 3 inverse directional hypotheses that relate to a criminal justice topic and make sense.

Provide independent variable and dependent variable

D. Construct 3 magnitude with difference hypotheses that relate to a CJ topic and make sense.

Provide independent variable and dependent variable