Critically discuss the most important measure(s) necessary to improve the effectiveness of the UN human rights treaty system in encouraging compliance by States with their international human rights obligations.

In writing your essay, your objective is to provide a clear, conceptual justification for the position you adopt.  Organise your essay in a logical and coherent way.


The word limit is 2,000 words. DO NOT GO MORE. ( submitted in excess of this maximum 2,000 word-count, your assignment will have a grade deduction ) References and bibliographies are excluded from maximum word counts

Assignments should be presented in 12pt font, justified left and right, 1 inch margins.

Focus on answering the question

Sources and referencing :

Only use from the provided sources ( if it is not enough:  use other sources but it should be free sources, academic and provide a copy from them)

All sources should be academic and relevant legal materials

All sources should be with page number and authors, all other details

Use a mix of primary and secondary sources

You should mention some case-law

Do not use online articles or NON-Academic sources

Use Harvard referencing style

All new information should be referenced, do not leave a paragraph without citing or referencing what you said. Do Not cite a whole paragraph with only one footnote, each sentences should be citied with a particular page numbers from the source you used

Readings list in the area

Classes reading lists will be uploaded for you

 General Readings

P. Alston and R. Goodman, International Human Rights (OUP, 2013); (Previous edition: H. Steiner, P. Alston and R. Goodman, 3rd. ed. International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics and Morals (Clarendon Press, 2007).

M. Bassiouni and W. Schabas, New Challenges for the UN Human Rights Machinery (Intersentia, 2011).

S. Egan, The UN Human Rights Treaty System (Bloomsbury, 2011).

D. Moeckli, S. Shah and S. Sivakumaran, International Human Rights Law 2nd ed. (OUP, 2013).

Bayefsky, The UN Human Rights System in the 21st Century (Kluwer, 2000).

J. Rehman International Human Rights Law (second edition, 2010)

Key Journals

International and Comparative Law Quarterly (I.C.L.Q.) – available on Westlaw.

Human Rights Quarterly (H.R.Q.) – available on Law School online (Hein).

Human Rights Law Review – available on Oxford Journals online.

Human Rights Law Journal (H.R.L.J.) – available in the Library Holdings.

American Journal of International Law (A.J.I.L.) – available on Law School online (Hein).

European Human Rights Law Review (E.H.R.L.R.) – available on Westlaw.

European Journal of International Law (E.J.I.L.) – available on Westlaw.

Key Reports

International Human Rights Reports (I.H.R.R.) – volumes 1994-2009 available in Library.

European Human Rights Reports (E.H.R.R.) – available on Westlaw.

Key Websites

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights:

For the Texts of all United Nations Human Rights Treaties:


For the texts of all outputs of individual treaty bodies, see: OHCHR Treaty Body Document Search:

For country specific human rights information emanating from all the UN human rights mechanisms, see the Universal Human Rights Index:

The University of Minnesota Human Rights Library on-line houses one of the largest collections of core human rights documents, including treaties, bibliographies and research materials:



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